Lens Correction on DJI Phantom 2 Vision+ for Mapping

The new prevalence and inexpensive nature of UAVs has given cartographers and spatial scientists a great new tool for creating extremely high-resolution (both spatial and temporal) maps of places. At Mansfield, we’ve got several platforms that we’re using — the latest acquisition is the midrange “prosumer” UAV, the DJI Phantom 2 Vision+. At less than $1,200 for a pretty incredible array of features, it’s a pretty good bargain (at least in the realm of scientific equipment, which generally has the same mark-up as illicit drugs) and a great place to start if you’re wanting to experiment with UAV mapping.

But. Anything at that price point will have some limitations. While the Phantom 2 Vision+ is very easy to fly right out of the box and provides some really nice imagery, it is limited in its application by the imaging hardware — indeed, the Phantom Vision FC200 on-board camera takes some great pictures, but its lens is an extremely wide-angle lens with a field-of-view (FOV) of nearly 105° at its widest extent.

Having such a wide-angle lens is great in terms of expanding spatial coverage, especially since citizen UAVs are limited to a ceiling of 400 feet above the surface by the FAA. What’s bad, though, is that this wide FOV results in a “fish eye” effect on the photography, ultimately distorting the spatial layout of what’s been photographed.

While this can produce some kinda cool imagery, like this shot looking south from campus:


(The “curvature of the earth” shouldn’t be visible at 400 feet!)

…at nadir, the “straight-down” angle most useful for basic mapping applications, the results are not as charming and can be downright disorienting:


(Believe it or not, Mansfield doesn’t have any Frank Gehry buildings…)

So, what to do? Luckily, the latest version of Adobe Photoshop (Creative Cloud, or “CC”) has a lens correction filter configured for the Phantom Vision FC200 camera. [And don’t despair! If you’re using an older version of Photoshop, the LCP profile is right here.]

To test this lens correction filter, I went out to the Mansfield football field and took a series of shots at 25-foot altitude intervals. Why the football field? Easy: because the gridiron provides some nice simple geometry that’s useful for checking the corrections, plus measurements that’ll be helpful to determine approximate resolutions for each altitude.

 

Unprocessed Imagery (Before)

Here are the unprocessed (but resized for web) images, which I (sorta) published yesterday. Click an image to make it slightly larger:

 


25 feet

50 feet

75 feet

100 feet

125 feet

150 feet

175 feet

200 feet

225 feet

250 feet

275 feet

300 feet

325 feet

350 feet

375 feet

400 feet

 

Obviously, there’s a bit of a “bulbous” effect happening, most evident at the closer altitudes, which mellows out a bit as the geometry of the gridiron becomes more distant, and hence in the middle of the image. This makes sense — a short focal length for the lens means that the middle portion is going to be the most accurate representation, with more distortion coming from the edges.

 

Process

Okay, so how to apply the lens correction. Open the image in Adobe Photoshop CC. Remember, if you don’t have CC, load the FC200 Profile. Once you have your image loaded, just go to the “Filter” menu and choose “Lens Correction…” (and again, you can click on the images for a larger version).

Then, on the “Auto Correction” panel, choose the correct profile: “Camera Make” should be “DJI” (which may auto-populate from your image’s metadata); both “Camera Model” and “Lens Model” should read “PHANTOM VISION FC200.” Then, hit okay, and voila.

A couple notes before we go any further:

  1. Yes, you can (of course) use the “Custom” panel in the Lens Correction menu to do the adjustments yourself, but after a few hours of playing with them I could not improve upon the preset DJI profile’s results.
  2. You can set this up as an action and use automators to batch correct any number of image files without manually repeating the process. Here’s a decent link explaining how to do that.

 

Results

The results aren’t perfect, as you can see from the geometry on the images below, but they’re very much improved. Click an image to make it slightly larger.


25 feet

50 feet

75 feet

100 feet

125 feet

150 feet

175 feet

200 feet

225 feet

250 feet

275 feet

300 feet

325 feet

350 feet

375 feet

400 feet

 

Some Observations

  1. The lines aren’t perfectly straight. Let me tell you this: they never will be perfectly straight. I tried what has to be every combination of corrections under the Custom tab on the Lens Correction menu, and this is as good as it will get.
  2. So, how much are the lines off? The inaccuracy still increases away from the center of the image. On the 50-foot altitude image, it appears that the lines are no more than six inches off their target even at the edges. That’s not bad!
  3. The coverage of the image decreases with the correction. This is okay! Why? Well, the outsides of the uncorrected images really aren’t useful for mapping anyway.
  4. The image focus is blurrier now outside of the center. This is from Photoshop’s rearranging of the pixels further out to account for the lens distortion. This kind of thing happens with any image processing, even in high-quality remote sensing images.

 

Will this imagery be useful for mapping? I’m optimistic, but I’ve got a few more steps to take in testing, including resolution measurements and georeferencing tests, before I’m completely convinced.

Author: Andrew Shears

Andrew Shears is an Assistant Professor of Geography at Mansfield University in Mansfield, Pennsylvania. His research interests lie at an intersection of the human-environmental nexus, and includes branches of mapping, technological, memorialization and urban geographies. He lives in Wellsboro, Pennsylvania with his wife Amy, a professional photographer.

153 thoughts on “Lens Correction on DJI Phantom 2 Vision+ for Mapping”

  1. Anyone using Linux/Unix/MacOS w/ imagemagick can remove the radial / fisheye distortion in images from DJI Phantom 2 Vision's FC200 camera with this one-liner:
    convert INPUT.jpg -distort barrel '0.1194435 -0.354597 -0.018339' OUTPUT.jpg

  2. Andrew,
    Nice stuff. But since everything we do with image processing is done from our own toolboxes (versus a pre filter from Adobe) I am looking for the distortion equations. Do you know if anyone (other than Adobe) has these?
    Thanks…Rob

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  29. Hoje é o Dia Nacional do Design Gráfico.Não tem nada a ver com o Design de Interiores ou Produtos, é outra data!!Cuidado para não disseminar informações erradas.E viva o Dia Nacional do Design Gráfico!

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